Employment 0ptions for children of the working class or even skilled tradesmen, plagued by economic downturns or financial failure, were limited until after World War Two. Even with means, education was rudimentary, especially in rural areas. Just a few in ‘the canopy’ were educated at city high schools and had better opportunites. Frederick Scrivener, benefiting from his education at Fort Street in the 1860s, was able to contribute to his local community near Lismore. John Archibald McCallum attended Sydney Boys High School and Sydney Teachers’ College (1912), gained a BA degree at Sydney University (1921), won a university medal in history, became a lecturer and broadcaster then moved to a political career as a writer, State President of the ALP (1931), foundation member of the Liberal Party (1944) and Senator for NSW (1950). Ted Whitfield, son of John McCallum’s cousin John McCallum Whitfield did his Leaving Certificate at Canterbury Boys’ High School where John McCallum was a teacher, studied Arts and Law at Sydney University in the 1930s and pursued a notable public service career as a barrister, member of the Public Service Board, Industrial Registrar and Commissioner for Water Conservation and Irrigation.